Leibnitz et al.

„Leibnitz (XVIIth century) dreamed of having a mechanical procedure to derive all theorems...and so he designed a numerical calculator

„Charles Mahon, Count of Stanhope (1777), invented an automatic solver for silogisms (a pocket device that solved classical silogisms and elementary questions about probability)


„J.M. Jacquard (1802)

inspired in music boxes, perforated paper, Jacquard loom machine


„ Countmeter of E. D. Felt (1885), using keys,
New York Meteo Bureau, Tax Bureau USA.


„H. Hollerith (1886), Perforated cards
Tabulating Machines Company, future IBM.
Census Bureau USA.