© 2005,2014 John Abbott
GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2

CoCoALib Documentation Index


User documentation

An object of the class PPOrdering represents an arithmetic ordering on the (multiplicative) monoid of power products, i.e. such that the ordering respects the monoid operation (viz. s < t => r*s < r*t for all r,s,t in the monoid).

In CoCoALib orderings and gradings are intimately linked -- for gradings see also degree. If you want to use an ordering to compare power products then see PPMonoid.


Currently, the most typical use for a PPOrdering object is as an argument to a constructor of a concrete PPMonoid or PolyRing, so see below Convenience constructors.

These are the functions which create new PPOrderings:

The first three create respectively lex, StdDegLex and StdDegRevLex orderings on the given number of indeterminates. Note the use of Std in the names to emphasise that they are only for standard graded polynomial rings (i.e. each indet has degree 1).

The last function creates a PPOrdering given a matrix. GradingDim specifies how many of the rows of OrderMatrix are to be taken as specifying the grading. Then entries of the given matrix must be integers (and the ring must have characteristic zero).

Convenience constructors

For convenience there is also the class PPOrderingCtor which provides a handy interface for creating PPMonoid and SparsePolyRing, so that lex, StdDegLex, StdDegRevLex may be used as shortcuts instead of the proper constructors, e.g.

   NewPolyRing(RingQQ(), symbols("a","b","c","d"), lex);

is the same as

   NewPolyRing(RingQQ(), symbols("a","b","c","d"), NewLexOrdering(4));



The operations on a PPOrdering object are:

CoCoALib supports graded polynomial rings with the restriction that the grading be compatible with the PP ordering: i.e. the grading comprises simply the first k entries of the order vector. The GradingDim is merely the integer k (which may be zero if there is no grading).

A normal CoCoA library user need know no more than this about PPOrderings. CoCoA Library contributors and the curious should read on.

Maintainer documentation for PPOrdering

A PPOrdering is just a smart pointer to an instance of a class derived from PPOrderingBase; so PPOrdering is a simple reference counting smart-pointer class, while PPOrderingBase hosts the intrusive reference count (so that every concrete derived class will inherit it).

There are four concrete PPOrderings in the namespace CoCoA::PPO. The implementations are all simple and straightforward except for the matrix ordering which is a little longer and messier but still easy enough to follow.

The class PPOrderingCtor is just a simple "trick" to allow for a convenient user interface. The mem fn operator(), with arg the actual number of indets, is used to generate an actual ordering.

Bugs, shortcomings and other ideas

We need better ways to compose PPOrderings, i.e. to build new ones starting from existing ones. Max knows the sorts of operation needed here. Something similar to CoCoA4's BlockMatrix command is needed.