© 2005-2007,2010,2013-2014 John Abbott
GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2

CoCoALib Documentation Index

User documentation for the classes PPMonoid, PPMonoidElem and PPMonoidBase

The classes PPMonoid and PPMonoidElem are analogous to ring and RingElem. A PPMonoid represents a (multiplicative) power product monoid with grading and compatible total arithmetic ordering; a PPMonoidElem represents an element of a PPMonoid, i.e. a power product.

PPMonoid and PPMonoidElem are used inside the implementation of SparsePolyRing (multivariate polynomial rings).

You do not have to deal directly with PPMonoid unless you want to work solely with power-products, or use some particular implementation for a specific need in your SparsePolyRing -- e.g. huge exponents, very sparse power-products, fast ordering or fast access to exponents.

The implementations of PPMonoids are optimized for different uses:


Operations PPMonoids

Recall that every PPMonoid is graded, and has a degree-compatible total arithmetical ordering; the grading and ordering must be specified when the PPMonoid is created. For convenient input and output, also the names of the indeterminates generating the monoid must be specified when the monoid is created.

If you expect to use large exponents then you should use only the special PPMonoid created by PPMonoidBigEv. The other PPMonoids should usually be fine for exponents up to 1000 or more; the true limit depends on the specific monoid, the number of indeterminates, and the PPOrdering. At the moment there is no way to find out what the true limit is (see Bugs section), and no warning is given should the limit be exceeded: you just get a wrong answer.

Pseudo-constructors of PPMonoid

To create a PPMonoid use the function NewPPMonoid (the default currently chooses PPMonoidEv). To create a PPMonoid object of a specific type use one of the pseudo-constructors related to the concrete monoid classes:

Given PPO a PPOrdering or PPOrderingCtor (i.e. lex, StdDegLex, or StdDegRevLex), and IndetNames a vector of symbol


These pseudo-constructors are described in the section about PPMonoidElems

Summary of functions for PPMonoidElems

See also some example programs in the CoCoALib/examples/ directory.

When a new object of type PPMonoidElem is created the monoid to which it belongs must be specified either explicitly as a constructor argument, or implicitly as the monoid associated with some constructor argument. Once the PPMonoidElem object has been created it is not possible to make it belong to any other monoid. Comparison and arithmetic between objects of type PPMonoidElem is permitted only if they belong to the same identical monoid.

Note: when writing a function which has an argument of type PPMonoidElem, you should specify the argument type as ConstRefPPMonoidElem, or RefPPMonoidElem if you want to modify its value.

Let PPM be a PPMonoid; for convenience, in comments we shall use x[i] to refer to the i-th indeterminate in PPM. Let pp be a non-const PPMonoidElem, and pp1 and pp2 be const PPMonoidElem (all belonging to PPM). Let expv be a vector<long> of size equal to the number of indeterminates.

Operations on collections of PPMonoidElem

Library Contributor Documentation

This section comprises two parts: the first is about creating a new type of PP monoid; the second comments about calling the member functions of PPMonoidBase directly.

To add a new type of concrete PPMonoid class

My first suggestion is to look at the code implementing PPMonoidEv. This is a simple PP monoid implementation: the values are represented as C arrays of exponents. Initially you should ignore the class CmpBase and those derived from it; they are simply to permit fast comparison of PPs in certain special cases.

First, a note about "philosophy". As far as we can tell, the programming language C++ does not have a built-in type system sufficiently flexible (and efficient) for our needs, consequently we have to build our own type system on top of what C++ offers. The way we have chosen to do this is as follows (note that the overall scheme used here is similar to that used for rings and their elements).

To fit into CoCoALib your new class must be derived from PPMonoidBase. Remember that any operation on elements of your PP monoid will be effected by calling a member function of your new monoid class.

The monoid must be a cartesian power of N, the natural numbers, with the monoid operation (called "multiplication") being vector addition -- the vector should be thought of as the vector of exponents in a power product. The monoid must have a total arithmetic ordering; often this will be specified when the monoid is created. The class PPOrdering represents the possible orderings.

Here is a summary of the member functions which must be implemented. All the functions may be called for a const PPMonoid, for brevity the const qualifier is omitted. I use two abbreviations:

RawPP is short for PPMonoidElemRawPtr
ConstRawPP is short for PPMonoidElemConstRawPtr

Note: all arithmetic functions must tolerate argument aliasing (i.e. any pair of arguments may be identical).

Constructors: these all allocate memory which must eventually be freed (by calling myDelete); the result is a pointer to the memory allocated.

Destructor: there is only one of these, its argument must be initialized

Assignment etc:

Arithmetic: in all cases the first arg is where the answer is placed, aliasing is permitted (i.e. arguments need not be distinct); myDiv result is undefined if the quotient does not exist!

Comparison and testing: each PP monoid has associated with it a term ordering, i.e. a total ordering which respects the monoid operation (multiplication)


Query functions:

To add a new member function to PPMonoidBase

You will have to edit PPMonoid.H and possibly PPMonoid.C (e.g. if there is to be a default definition). Arguments representing PPs should be of type RawPP if they may be modified, or of type ConstRawPP if they are read-only. See also the Coding Conventions about names of member functions.

If you do add a new pure virtual member function, you will have to add definitions to all the existing concrete PP monoid classes (otherwise they will become uninstantiable). Don't forget to update the documentation too!

Calculating directly with raw PPs

Values of type PPMonoidElem are intended to be simple and safe to use but with some performance penalty. There is also a "fast, ugly, unsafe" option which we shall describe here.

The most important fact to heed is that a PPMonoidElemRawPtr value is not a C++ object -- it does not generally know enough about itself even to destroy itself. This places a considerable responsibility on the programmer, and probably makes it difficult to write exception clean code. You really must view the performance issue as paramount if you plan to use raw PPs! In any case the gain in speed will likely be only slight.

The model for creation/destruction and use of raw PPs is as follows: (NB see Bugs section about exception-safety) - (1) an uninitialized raw PP is acquired from the system; - (2) the raw PP is initialized by calling an initialization function (typically called myNew) -- this will generally acquire further resources; - (3) now the RawPP may be used for i/o, arithmetic, and so forth; - (4) finally, when the value is no longer required the extra resources acquired during initialization should be released by calling the myDelete function -- failure to call myDelete will probably result in a memory leak.

Here is some pseudo C++ code to give an idea

    const PPMonoid& M = ...; // A PPMonoid from somewhere
    PPMonoidElemRawPtr t;    // A wrapped opaque pointer; initially points into hyperspace.
    t = M->myNew();          // Allocate resources for a new PP belonging to M;
                             // there are two other myNew functions.
    .... operations on t; always via a member function of the monoid M ...
    M->myDelete(t);          // "destroy" the value t held; t points into hyperspace again.

NOTE: the only functions which take a pointer into hyperspace are PPMonoidBase::myNew; many functions, e.g. PPMonoidBase::myMul, write their result into the first argument and require that that first argument be already allocated/initialized.

NOTE: if an exception is thrown after M->myNew and before M->myDelete then there will be a memory leak (unless you correctly add a try...catch block). If t is just to hold a temporary local value then it is better to create a full PPMonoidElem and then let t be its RawPtr; this should avoid memory leaks.

Maintainer documentation for PPMonoid, PPMonoidElem, and PPMonoidBase

See subsection below about thread-safety in PPMonoidOV.

The general structure here mirrors that of rings and their elements, so you may find it helpful to read ring.txt if the following seems too opaque. At first sight the design may seem complex (because it comprises several classes), but there's no need to be afraid.

The class PPMonoid is a reference counting smart pointer to an object derived from PPMonoidBase. This means that making copies of a PPMonoid is very cheap, and that it is easy to tell if two PPMonoids are identical. Assignment of PPMonoids is disabled because I am not sure whether it is useful/meaningful. operator-> allows member functions of PPMonoidBase to be called using a simple syntax.

The class PPMonoidBase is what specifies the class interface for each concrete PP monoid implementation, i.e. the operations that it must offer. It includes an intrusive reference count for compatibility with PPMonoid. Since it is inconceivable to have a PP monoid without an ordering, there is a data member for memorizing the inherent PPOrdering. This data member is protected so that it is accessible only to friends and derived classes.

The function PPMonoidBase::myOutput for printing PPs has a reasonable default definition.

The situation for elements of a PP monoid could easily appear horrendously complicated. The basic idea is that a PP monoid element comprises two components: one indicating the PPMonoid to which the value belongs, and the other indicating the actual value. This allows the user to employ a notationally convenient syntax for many operations -- the emphasis is on notational convenience rather than ultimate run-time efficiency.

For an element of a PP monoid, the owning PPMonoid is specified during creation and remains fixed throughout the life of the object; in contrast the value may be varied (if C++ const rules permit). The value is indicated by an opaque pointer (essentially a wrapped void*): only the owning PPMonoid knows how to interpret the data pointed to, and so all operations on the value are effected by member functions of the owning PPMonoid.

I do not like the idea of having naked void* values in programs: it is too easy to get confused about what is pointing to what. Since the value part of a PPMonoidElem is an opaque pointer (morally a void*), I chose to wrap it in a lightweight class; actually there are two classes depending on whether the pointed to value is const or not. These classes are PPMonoidElemRawPtr and PPMonoidElemConstRawPtr; they are opaque pointers pointing to a value belonging to some concrete PP monoid (someone else must keep track of precisely which PP monoid is the owner).

The constructors for PPMonoidElemRawPtr and PPMonoidElemConstRawPtr are explicit to avoid potentially risky automatic conversion of any old pointer into one of these types. The naked pointer may be accessed via the member functions myRawPtr. Only implementors of new PP monoid classes are likely to find these two opaque pointer classes useful.

I now return to the classes for representing fully qualified PPs. There are three very similar yet distinct classes for elements of PP monoids; the distinction is to keep track of constness and ownership. I have used inheritance to allow natural automatic conversion among these three classes (analogously to RingElem, ConstRefRingElem)

The data layout is determined in ConstRefPPMonoidElem, and the more permissive classes inherit the data members. I have deliberately used a non-constant PPMonoidElemRawPtr for the value pointer as it is easier for the class ConstRefPPMonoidElem to add in constness appropriately than it is for the other two classes to remove it. The four assignment operators must all be defined since C++ does not allow polymorphism in the destination object (e.g. because of potential problems with slicing). Ideally it would be enough to define assignment just from a ConstRefPPMonoidElem, but I have to define also the "homogeneous" assignment operator since the default definition would not work properly. It is a bit tedious to have four copies of the relevant code (but it is only a handful of lines each time).

By convention the member functions of PPMonoidBase which operate on raw PP values assume that the values are valid (e.g. belong to the same PP monoid, division is exact in myDiv). The validity of the arguments is checked by the syntactically nice equivalent operations (see the code in PPMonoid.C). This permits a programmer to choose between safe clean code (with nice syntax) or faster unsafe code (albeit with uglier syntax).

Thread-safety and CoCoA_THREADSAFE_HACK

The impl in PPMonoidOV using the CPP flag CoCoA_THREADSAFETY_HACK to select between two impl strategies. If the CPP flag is not set, then "single-threaded" code is compiled which uses some "global" buffers to gain speed; if the flag is set then buffers are allocated locally in several functions.

Bugs, Shortcomings and other ideas

The section on "Advanced Use" is a bit out of date and too long.